The present paper deals with the ancient Indian five-fold model of human personality
described as ‘Panch Kosha’ in Tattiriya Upanishada. Yogic philosophy believes that there are
five cardinal layers that surround the human soul. The Atman is at the centre of the koshas.
These five layers are also considered the five sheaths of human’s personality. These are five
different layers of our human growth and evolution. Every human being is endowed with certain
physical and psychological features that work together in a holistic manner.
The panch koshas are ‘Annamaya’ (food sheath), ‘Pranamaya’ (vital air sheath),
‘Manomaya’ (mental sheath), ‘Vijnanamaya’ (intellectual sheath), and ‘Anandamaya’ (bliss
sheath). ‘Annamaya’; a segment of human system is nourished by ‘anna’, that is, food.
‘Pranamaya’ is that segment which is nourished by ‘prana’, that is, ‘bioenergy’. ‘Manomaya’ is
the segment nourished by ‘education’. ‘Vijnanamaya’ is nourished by ‘ego’ and ‘Anandamaya’
is the segment nourished by bliss. All these koshas are considered to reside one under the other,
annamaya being the outermost sheath and anandamaya the innermost. These sheaths are
interdependent, they have their impact on the development and functioning of other sheaths.
Development of all the sheaths fully is necessary for a man’s complete spiritual evolution
and ultimate union with the Divine. Simple measures to develop these sheaths have been given in
Brahmanandavalli ,Tattiriya Upanishada ,Tattiriya Samhita of Krishna Yajur Veda.
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